A cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Icelandic version of the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory

Ásta B. Schram, Brett D. Jones


We describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the middle and high school version of the MUSIC® Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (Jones, 2012) into Icelandic, in order to provide Icelandic educators with a tool to assess motivation and guide the selection of teaching strategies. The inventory measures students´ perceptions of the five components of the MUSIC® Model of Motivation (Jones, 2009, 2015): eMpowerment, Usefulness, Success, Interest, and Caring. Back-translation of the MUSIC Inventory, followed by expert meetings, was used to gain semantic equivalence. Participants were 458 Icelandic students in fifth to eighth grade. To obtain translation equivalence, we used an exploratory factor analysis that involved principal axis factoring with promax rotation. Subsequently, we implemented a confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample of students to test for model fit. The results replicated the findings obtained with the original version and confirmed the five-factor structure, providing validity evidence for the scores produced by using the Icelandic version.


academic motivation;instrument translation;adaptation;validation;engagement, MUSIC Model of Motivation


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ISSN 2298-8394 (prentuð útg.)
ISSN 2298-8408 (rafræn útg.)

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.